- Atal Mission for Rejuvenation and Urban Transformation (AMRUT)
- Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana (PMAY)
- Swachch Bharat Mission (SBM)
- National Urban Livilihood Mission (NULM)
Atal Mission for Rejuvenation and Urban Transformation (AMRUT)
Amrut mission was launched by Govt. of India in June 2015 with the purpose to:
- ensure that every household has access to a tap with assured supply of water and a sewerage connection;
- increase the amenity value of cities by developing greenery and well maintained open spaces (e.g. parks); and
- reduce pollution by switching to public transport or constructing facilities for non-motorized transport (e.g. walking and cycling).
All these outcomes are valued by citizens, particularly women, and indicators and standards have been prescribed by the Ministry of Urban Development (MoUD) in the form of Service Level Benchmarks (SLBs).
The Mission will focus on the following Thrust Areas:
- Water supply,
- Sewerage facilities and septage management,
- Storm water drains to reduce flooding,
- Pedestrian, non-motorized and public transport facilities, parking spaces, and
- Enhancing amenity value of cities by creating and upgrading green spaces, parks and recreation centers, especially for children.
Mission ComponentsThe components of the AMRUT consist of capacity building, reform implementation, water supply, sewerage and septage management, storm water drainage, urban transport and development of green spaces and parks. During the process of planning, the Urban Local Bodies (ULBs) will strive to include some smart features in the physical infrastructure components.
The details of the Mission components are given in detail.
Reforms management & support
- Support structures, activities and funding support for reform implementation.
- Independent Reform monitoring agencies.
- This has two components- individual and institutional capacity building.
- The capacity building will not be limited to the Mission Cities, but will be extended to other ULBs as well.
- Continuation of the Comprehensive Capacity Building Programme (CCBP) after its realignment towards the new Missions.
Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana (PMAY)
The Hon’ble President of India , in his address to the joint Session of parliament on 9th june 2014 had announced “By the time Nation complete 75 years of its independence, every family will have a pucca house with water connection, toilet facilities, 24x7 electricity supply and access.” Hon’ble Prime Minister envisioned Housing for all by 2022 when the Nation complete 75 years of its Independence. In order to achieve this objective, Central Government has launched a comprehensive mission “Housing for all 2022” Housing for all (HFA) mission is since launched in compliance with the above objective of the Government and with the approval of competent authority. The mission seeks to address the housing requirement of urban poor including slum dwellers through following programme verticals:
- Slum rehabilitation of slum dwellers with participation of private developers using lan as a resource.
- Promotion of affordable housing for weaker section through credit linked subsidy.
- Affordable housing in partnership with public and private sectors.
- Subsidy for beneficiary-led indivisual house construction.
- “Housing for All” mission for urban area will be implemented during 2015-2022 and this mission will provide central assistance to implementing agencies through states and UTs for providing house to all eligible families/ beneficiaries by 2022.
- Mission will be implemented as centrally Sponsored Scheme (CSS) except for the for the component 1.2 of credit linked subsidy which will be implemented as a Central Sector Scheme.
- A beneficiary family will comprise husband, wife, unmarried sons and/or unmarried daughters. The beneficiary family should not own a pucca house either in his/her name or in the name of any members of his/her family in any part of India to be eligible to receive central assistance under the mission.
- States/UTs, at their discretion, may decide a cut-off date on which beneficiaries need to be resident of that urban area for being eligible to take benefits under the scheme.
- Mission with all its component has become effective for the date 17.06.2015 and will be 1.5 implemented upto 31.03.2022.
Swachh Bharat Mission (Urban)
- According to Census 2011, India’s urban population is 377 million or 31% of the total population. These numbers are expected to increase to 600 million by 2031. The Census 2011 also showed that in 4,041 statutory towns, close to eight million households do not have access to toilets and defecate in the open (7.90million). Weak sanitation has significant health costs and untreated sewage from cities is the single biggest source of water resource pollution in India. This indicates both the scale of the challenge ahead of the Indian cities and the huge costs incurred from not addressing them.
- The Swachh Bharat Mission (SBM) emanates from the vision of the Government articulated in the address of The President of India in his address to the Joint Session of Parliament on 9th June 2014: “We must not tolerate the indignity of homes without toilets and public spaces littered with garbage. For ensuring hygiene, waste management and sanitation across the nation, a “Swachh Bharat Mission” will be launched. This will be our tribute to Mahatma Gandhi on his 150th birth anniversary to be celebrated in the year 2019.”
- SBM is being implemented by the Ministry of Urban Development (M/o UD) and by the Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation (M/o DWS) for urban and rural areas respectively. These guidelines are for the implementation.
- Elimination of open defecation
- Eradication of Manual Scavenging
- Modern and Scientific Municipal Solid Waste Management
- To effect behavioural change regarding Healthy sanitation practices
- Generate awareness about sanitation and its linkage with public health
- Capacity Augmentation for ULBs to create an enabling environment for private sector Participation in Capex (capital expenditure) and Opex (operation and maintenance.
- Household toilets, including conversion of insanitary latrines into pour-flush latrines
- Community toilets
- Public toilets and urinals
- Solid waste management
- IEC & Public Awareness
- Capacity building and Administrative & Office Expenses (A&OE)
SBM (Urban) aims to ensure that
- No households engage in the practice of open defecation
- No new insanitary toilets are constructed during the mission period, and
- Pit latrines are converted to sanitary latrines. The Target Group for construction of household units of Toilets, thus, is:
(i) 80% of urban households engaging in open defecation
(ii) All households with insanitary latrines
(iii) All households with single-pit latrines
These will be targeted under this component for the construction of household toilets or individual household latrines during the mission period.
The remaining 20% of households practicing open defecation are assumed to be catered by Community toilets due to constraints of space.
- Under SBM (Urban), it is estimated that about 20% of the urban households in cities, who are currently practicing open defecation are likely to use community toilets as a solution due to land and space constraints in constructing individual household latrine.
- Community toilet blocks will consist of a given number of toilet seats, as per requirements, toilet superstructure including the pan and water closet, and a substructure (either an on-site treatment system, or a connection to underground sewerage/septage system) shared by all the toilet seats and facilities for hand wash.
- Care should be taken to ensure that these facilities have adequate provision for separate toilets and bathing facilities for men, women and facilities for the disabled (e.g. ramp provision, Braille signage, etc.).
- The norms for connection of the superstructure to an on-site system or connection to an underground sewerage system as defined in paragraphs 4.2.1 and 3.2.2 above will apply here.
- ULBs should ensure that all community toilets being constructed under SBM (Urban) are built in tandem with water supply arrangements in ULBs. Suggested technical specifications, technologies and tentative cost of community toilets are available at Annexure II.
- For this component, beneficiaries shall be groups of households (“beneficiary household group”) in urban areas whose members practice open defecation and who do not have access to household toilet, and for whom the construction of individual household toilets is not feasible.
- Under SBM (Urban), States and ULBs will ensure that a sufficient number of public toilets and Urinals are constructed in each city. All prominent places within the city attracting floating population should be covered.
- Care should be taken to ensure that public toilets have adequate provision for men, women and facilities for the disabled (e.g. ramp provision, Braille signage, etc.) wherever necessary. Suggested technical specifications, technologies and tentative cost of public toilets are available at Annexure II.
- ULBs should ensure that all Public Toilets and Urinals being constructed under SBM (Urban) are built in tandem with water supply arrangements in ULBs.
- Central government incentive for the construction of public toilets and urinals will be in the form of 40% Grant/VGF, for each toilet block constructed. The base unit cost of PTs will be calculated at Rs 98000 per seat, wherein the VGF/Grant will be upto 40% of the project cost (i.e. VGF/Grant of Rs 39,200 per seat). For urinals, base unit cost of PTs will be calculated at Rs 32000 per seat, wherein the VGF/Grant will be upto 40% of the project cost (i.e. VGF/Grant of Rs 12,800 per seat).
- ULBS should ensure that for the convenience of the public, at every public place (banks, post offices, bus stops, petrol pumps, metro stations, hospitals, restaurants, schools, health centres, anganwadis, citizen centres) there should be at least one public toilet available, and that the facility should be kept functional and open for public use.
- (MSWM) refers to a systematic process that comprises of waste segregation and storage at source, primary collection, secondary storage, transportation, secondary segregation, resource recovery, processing, treatment, and final disposal of solid waste. The Manual on Municipal Solid Waste Management, 2016 published by M/o UD and revised from time-to-time, may be referenced for DPR formulation and implementation.
- ULBs are to prepare DPR for Solid waste management of their city in consultation with state governments. Smaller cities can form clusters to become viable entities to attract private investment. 100% Cost reimbursement for preparing the DPR shall be done by GoI as per unit cost and norms set up by NARC.
- State governments may handhold ULB’s in quickly preparing DPR’s for SWM by empanelling /short listing /identifying private or government agencies for the same.
- The DPRs should be bankable, having a viable financial model. These will be prepared emanating from the needs identified in the City Sanitation Plan. DPRs should be aligned with Govt. of India’s goals outlined in the NUSP 2008, SWM 2016 rules, advisories, CPHEEO manuals (including cost recovery mechanisms), O&M practices and Service-level Benchmark Advisories released by M/o UD from time to time. Street Sweeping, litter control interventions, and dumpsite remediations will be part of DPR which is essential for a clean city.
- A key strategy under SBM (Urban) is behaviour change communication to ensure that sanitation as an issue is mainstreamed with the general public at large and should cover issues of open defecation, prevention of manual scavenging, hygiene practices, proper use and maintenance of toilet facilities (household, community or otherwise), etc., and its related health and environmental consequences. Communication material for behaviour change shall be designed in consultation with the M/o Information and Broadcasting, M/o Health & Family Welfare, and should be in sync with the material being used under SBM (Rural).
- A total of 15% of the total central allocation will be earmarked for this component. Of this, 12% will be earmarked for States to undertake massive public awareness campaigns on sanitation and establishing its link to public health, hygiene and the environment through various means including -radio, social media, documentaries, plays, workshops, etc. The remaining 3% will be earmarked for the MoUD to draw a national media campaign and developing standard campaign tools for effective awareness and communication on sanitation.
- Expenditure on national Newspaper and national TV is not an admissible item under this component for the state government or for the ULB’s as this is taken care by government of India ministries and organisations. However, for faster procurement of short-term IEC
- 3% of the total Central Government allocation under the mission will be earmarked for capacity building, administrative and office expenses of States and ULBs.
- 2% of the total Central Government allocation under the mission will be utilized at MoUD level for capacity building, convening national and regional workshops, various awards and best practice recognition, programme research, studies, international cooperation for capacity building and technology development, A&OE and various eligible purposes in consultation with the Integrated Finance Division (IFD) of the M/o UD.
- States shall propose extensive capacity building activities to be implemented in a mission-mode manner, which will enable the progressive achievement of objectives of SBM (Urban) in a time bound manner. These will be specified in the comprehensive annual action plan prepared by each state. This will be approved by State Level High Power Committee after sharing and considering suggestions from MoUD. At least 50% of this fund, in each annual plan, as approved by State HPC, must go to the ULB’s for activities at the ULB level.
- HPEC at State level shall be the competent authority to authorize and delegate administrative powers for use of these funds. ULB’s shall be competent to use the minimum 50% fund, as per approved plan, passed on to them.
- States will be encouraged to use other available capacity building funds to dovetail or integrate capacity building activities of ULB’s.
Deen Dayal Antyodaya Yojna-National Urban Livelihood Mission(DAY-NULM)
- Social Mobilisation And Institution Development (SM&ID)
- Self-Employment Programme (SEP)
- Employment Through Skills Training And Placement (EST&P)
- Support to Urban Street Vendors(susv)
- Scheme of Shelter For Urban Homeless (SUH)
- Capacity Building And Training (CB&T)
Self-Employment Programme (SEP)
- This component will focus on financial assistance to individuals/groups of urban poor for setting up gainful self-employment ventures/ micro-enterprises, suited to their skills, training, aptitude and local conditions. The component will also support Self Help Groups (SHGs) of urban poor to access easy credit from bank and avail interest subsidy on SHG Loans . the component will further focus on technology, marketing ,and other support services to the individuals group entrepreneurs ,SHG members and urban street members /hawkers engaged in micro enterprises for there lively hoods .the component will also facilitate credit card for working capital requirement of the entrepreneurs. .
- The under-employed and unemployed urban poor will be encouraged to set up small enterprises relating to manufacturing, servicing and petty business for which there is considerable local demand. Local skills and local crafts should be particularly encouraged. Each urban should develop a compendium of such activities/projects keeping in view skills available, marketability of products, costs, economic viability etc.
- Pattern of Financial Assistance: The financial assistance available to urban poor in setting up individual and group enterprises will be in the form of Interest subsidy on the bank loans. Interest subsidy, over and above 7% rate of interest will be available on a bank loan for setting up of individual or group enterprises. The difference between 7% p.a. and the prevailing rate of interest will be provided to banks under NULM. Interest subsidy will be given only in case
- Of timely repayment of loan. Suitable certification from banks will be obtain in this regard.
- An urban poor individual beneficiary desirous of setting up an individual micro-enterprise.
- for self-employment can avail benefit of subsidised loan under this component from any bank. The norms/ specifications for individual micro-enterprise loans are as follows.
- Age: The prospective beneficiary should have attained the age of 18 Years at the time of applying for loan.
- Project Cost (PC): The Maximum unit Project Cost for individual micro-enterprises cases is Rs 200,000 (Rs Two Lakhs)
- Repayment: Repayment schedule ranges from 5 to 7 Years after initial moratorium of 6-18 months as per norms of the banks.
- A Self Help Group (SHG) or members of an SHG constituted under SJSRY/ NULM or a group of urban poor desirous of setting up a group enterprise for self-employment can avail benefit of subsidised loans under this component from any bank. The norms/ specifications for group micro-enterprise loans are as follows.
- Eligibility: The group enterprise should have minimum 5 members with a minimum of 70% members from urban poor families.
- Project Cost (PC): The Maximum unit Project Cost for a group enterprise is Rs 10,00,000 (Rs Ten Lakhs)
- The Employment through Skills Training & Placement (EST&P) Component under NULM is designed to provide skills to the unskilled urban poor as well as to upgrade their existing skills. The program will provide for skill training of the urban poor to enable them setting up self-employment ventures and for salaried jobs in the private sector.
- The EST&P Program intends to fill the gap between the demand and availability of local skills by providing skill training programs as required by the market.
- A city wide street vendors Survey with a view to Identity vendors,
- Vender zones and existing practices.
- Issue id cards to the vender by the ULB .
- Development of city street vending plans .
- Provide bank linkages by way of opening basic savings bank
- Deposit account (no-frills) of the vendors
- Facilitate bank linkages for working capital requirement.
- Skill Development
- Social Security Convergence
- The shelters should be permanent( 24X7) all-weather shelters for the urban homeless. For every 1 lakh urban population, provisions should be made for permanent community shelters for a minimum of one hundred persons.
- Depending upon local conditions each shelter could cater to 50 or 100 persons. The shelters will be permanent, running though out the year; and open round the clock, because many homeless persons find work in the nights.
- For all the shelters, a space of 50 square feet per person will be taken as the minimum space to be provided. Under the component, construction of new shelters as well as refurbishing of existing building as homeless shelters will be allowed.
- Shelters will be a space for convergence and provisions of various entitlements of social security, food, education and health care systems.